Normal Stages of Human Development (Birth to 5 Years)
Physical and Emotional Social
| || |
| Birth |
| Feedings: 5-8 per day |
Sleep: 20 hrs per day
Sensory Capacities: makes basic distinctions in vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touch, temperature, and perception of pain
|Generalized Tension|| Helpless |
Fed by mother
| 2 months |
| Sensory Capacities: color perception, visual exploration, oral exploration. |
Sounds: cries, coos, grunts
Motor Ability: control of eye muscles, lifts head when on stomach.
| Delight |
Smiles at a Face
|Visually fixates at a face, smiles at a face, may be soothed by rocking.|
| 4 months |
| Sensory Capacities: localizes sounds |
Sounds: babbling, makes most vowels and about half of the consonants
Feedings: 3-5 per day
Motor Ability: control of head and arm movements, purposive grasping, rolls over.
|Enjoys being cuddled|| Recognizes his mother. Distinguishes between familiar persons and strangers, no longer smiles indiscriminately. |
Expects feeding, dressing, and bathing.
| 7 months |
|Motor Ability: control of trunk and hands, sits without support, crawls about.|| Specific emotional attachment to mother. |
Protests separation from mother.
| 10 months |
| Motor Ability: control of legs and feet, stands, creeps, apposition of thumb and fore-finger. |
Language: says one or two words, imitates sounds, responds to simple commands.
Feedings: 3 meals, 2 snacks
Sleep: 12 hours, 2 naps
| Anger |
Fear of strangers
| Responsive to own name. |
Plays pat-a-cake, understands "no-no!"
Gives and takes objects.
| 1 years |
1 ½ years
|Motor Ability: creeps up stairs, walks (10-20 min), makes lines on paper with crayon.|| Dependent Behavior |
Very upset when separated
Fear of Bath
| Obeys limited commands. |
Repeats a few words.
Interested in his mirror image.
| 1 ½ years |
| Motor Ability: runs, kicks a ball, builds 6 cube tower (2yrs) Capable of bowel and bladder control. |
Language: vocabulary of more than 200 words
Sleep: 12 hours at night, 1-2 hr nap
| Temper tantrums (1-3yrs) |
Resentment of new baby
|Does opposite of what he is told (18 months).|
| 2 years |
| Motor Ability: jumps off a step, rides a tricycle, uses crayons, builds a 9-10 cube tower. |
Language: starts to use short sentences controls and explores world with language, stuttering may appear briefly.
| Fear of separation |
Negativistic (2 ½ yrs)
Violent emotions, anger
Differentiates facial expressions of anger, sorrow, and joy.
Sense of humor (Plays tricks)
| Talks, uses "I" "me" "you" |
Copies parents' actions.
Dependent, clinging, possessive about toys, enjoys playing alongside another child.
Negativism (2 ½ yrs).
Resists parental demands.
Rigid insistence on sameness of routine. Inability to make decisions.
| 3 years |
|Motor Ability: Stands on one leg, jumps up and down, draws a circle and a cross (4 yrs) Self-sufficient in many routines of home life.|| Affectionate toward parents. |
Pleasure in genital manipulation
Romantic attachment to parent of opposite sex
(3 to 5 yrs)
Jealousy of same-sex parent.
Imaginary fears of dark, injury, etc. (3 to 5 years)
| Likes to share, uses "we" |
Cooperative play with other children, nursery school. Imitates parents.
Beginning of identification with same-sex parent, practices sex-role activities. Intense curiosity & interest in other children's bodies.
| 4 years |
| Motor ability: mature motor control, skips, broad jumps, dresses himself, copies a square and a triangle. |
Language: talks clearly, uses adult speech sounds, has mastered basic grammar, relates a story, knows over 2,000 words
| Responsibility and guild |
Feels pride in accomplishment
| Prefers to play with other children, becomes competitive prefers sex-appropriate activities.|